“Only a minority of trees can produce wand quality wood (just as a minority of humans can produce magic). It takes years of experience to tell which ones have the gift, although the job is made easier if Bowtruckles are found nesting in the leaves, as they never inhabit mundane trees. ” Garrick Ollivander [src]
Various different types of wood are used in the construction of wands. They are also embedded with a core of a magical substance. Wands vary according to length, from at least 7″ to 18″, as well as rigidity, ranging from ‘springy’  to ‘unyielding’ .
Every single wand is unique and will depend for its character on the particular tree and magical creature from which it derives its materials. Moreover, each wand, from the moment it finds its ideal owner, will begin to learn from and teach its human partner. 
Known wand woods
Pear wands produce wands of splendid magicalpowers. Possessors of pear wands are, in the experience of the learned wandmaker Garrick Ollivander. usually popular and well-respected and he never knew of single instance where a pear wand has been discovered in the possession of a Dark witch or wizard. They are also the most resilient.
Pine wands always chooses an independent, individual master who may be perceived as a loner, intriguing and perhaps mysterious. Pine wands enjoy being used creatively, and unlike some others, will adapt unprotestingly to new methods and spells. Many wandmakers insist that pine wands are able to detect, and perform best for, owners who are destined for long lives, including Garrick Ollivander who had never personally known the master of a pine wand to die young. The pine wand is one of those that is most sensitive to non-verbal magic.
Poplar wands rely upon, of consistency, strength and uniform power, always happiest when working with a witch or wizard of clear moral vision. The existence of these wands and its owners was cited as evidence against a myth that poplar wands never chose politicians.
Rowan wands generally produce powerful, hard to break Defensive Charms. Rowan wands was also noted for its believed disassociation with the Dark Arts. Perhaps for these reasons, rowan has become associated with pure-hearted wizards. though Ollivander noted that rowan wands can also match or even outperform others in duels.
According to Pottermore. silver lime is an incredibly unusual and attractive wood that works best for Seers and those skilled at Legilimency. It was greatly in vogue in the nineteenth century when the demand outstripped supply, causing some wandmakers to dye other wood in effort to fool purchasers into believing they had purchased a silver lime wand.
Spruce wands require particular deftness to work with spruce, which produces wands that are ill-matched with cautious or nervous natures, becoming positively dangerous in fumbling fingers. Spruce wands require a firm hand, because it often appears to have its own ideas about what magic it ought to be called upon to produce. However, when a spruce wand meets its match is a bold spell-caster with a good sense of humour and it becomes a superb helper, intensely loyal to their owners and capable of producing particularly flamboyant and dramatic effects.